Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a separation technique that’s appropriate for a variety of functions, especially when salt and/or dissolved solids have to be removed from an answer. It is likely considered one of the commonest kinds of water remedy.
According to Anelia Hough, water treatment advisor at Allmech, leading South African manufacturer of boilers and provider of water treatment elements, there are a quantity of components to be thought of when choosing an RO system: the customer’s capability requirement (i.e. water usage), the daily production capacity of the system, and the percent rejection for particular contaminants within the source water.
“Beyond this, RO plants require correct maintenance and care to ensure they perform optimally and to extend their lifespan,” she says. “Aside from regular maintenance, the easiest way to protect a RO plant is by pre-treating water, which reduces the strain on the RO membrane – a pricey part. It also helps to avoid points like scaling and bio-fouling.”
Common Issues with RO Plants
“Factors that may have an effect on a RO system’s efficiency include temperature, operating stress, again stress, the equilibrium effect/TDS creep, % restoration, and, of course, the RO membrane’s permeate production and % rejection ratings,” says Hough.
The most common issues in RO crops include:
• Fouling: happens when contaminants accumulate on the membrane floor, effectively plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water which are innocent for human consumption, however large sufficient to quickly foul (or plug) an RO system.
• Scaling: when particles are deposited on a membrane, inflicting it to plug. As certain dissolved compounds become extra concentrated, scaling can occur if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane floor as scale. Scaling calculations are normally solely based on the silicate concentration within the feed water.
• Biofouling: reduces actual membrane performance through microbial generation in a biofilm that forms on the membrane surface.
• Chemical injury: on a RO membrane, this implies the next permeate flow and poorer high quality permeate water. Dosing of oxidant agents, corresponding to chlorine or hypochlorite, can reduce efficiency and in the end outcome in the failure of the RO membranes. Use of aggressive cleaners can also cause chemical harm.
pressure gauge หน้าปัด 4 นิ้ว : can occur when a system is pressurised too rapidly, damaging the RO membrane components. One of probably the most clears signs of damages on a RO membrane is the shortage of salt rejection capabilities. There can additionally be fairly often a rise of permeate move rate.
Pre-treatment can help to avoid these issues, and Hough says there are various options out there.
Pre-treatment Options
“When deciding on a pre-filter, customers should always search for a verified efficiency rating subsequent to the micron measurement on the filter’s technical information sheet,” says Hough.
• Multi Media Filtration: A multi-media filter is used to help stop fouling of a RO system. This sort of sediment filtration is right for a pre-treatment course of to any reverse osmosis system helping to make sure lengthy life of the RO membrane elements. A well operated multimedia filter can take away particulates down to twenty microns. A multimedia filter that makes use of a coagulant addition can take away particulates down to 10 microns.
• Micro Filtration: The filters utilized in microfiltration have a pore dimension of approximately 0.1 micron. Bacteria and suspended solids are the only element that can be eliminated through microfiltration.
• Antiscalants and scale inhibitors: There are many chemical substances that can be utilized as antiscalants and dispersants to improve the operation of RO. Antiscalants are a household of chemicals designed to inhibit the formation and precipitation of crystallized mineral salts that type scale.
• Softening by ion change: A water softener is a filtration system that removes hardness-causing calcium and magnesium minerals from water by way of a process referred to as ion exchange. Standard water softeners are cation change devices. Cation change includes the substitute of the hardness ions with non-hardness ions.
• Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Filtration: Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical reaction that entails a switch of electrons from the floor of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines find yourself as a chloride ion that is no longer an oxidizer.
“It’s also essential to wash the RO membrane often,” says Hough. “This involves high and low pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. We tackle scaling with low pH cleaners and organics, whereas colloidal and biofouling are treated with a excessive pH cleaner.”
Allmech offers the whole range of pre-treatment and RO membrane maintenance solutions for RO plants, together with filtration systems, softeners, antiscalants, chemical compounds and other consumables.
“At Allmech, we’re wanting forward to rising this part of our enterprise in 2022 and past, leveraging our experience in all issues associated to water treatment. We even have a boiler division and we inventory a complete range of Runxin valves, so we’re well positioned to be a one-stop shop for anyone needing a water therapy or boiler specialist, and we’re expecting a busy yr forward,” Hough says.

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